AGUCADOURA WAVE FARM PROJECT (PORTUGAL) – http://www.oceanpd.com/default.html
ATOMIC HERITAGE FOUNDATION – http://www.atomicheritage.org/ebr1.htm
BLUE ENERGY – [Wikipedia] “Blue energy is the energy retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water with the use of reverse electro dialysis (RED) (or osmosis) with ion specific membranes. The waste product in this process is brackish water.” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_energy
BRAZIL’S CLEAN ENERGY EFFORT RIDES THE OCEAN WAVES http://www.tierramerica.net/2004/0209/iarticulo.shtml
CARS, DEBATE ABOUT CARS OF THE FUTURE -http://www.automotivedigest.com/view_art.asp?articlesID=17256
CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE – U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, Educational Resources. Regional Paper. Great Plains. -http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/nacc/education/greatplains/greatplains-edu-4.htm
COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT (WORLD’S LARGEST) ADAG plans world’s largest coal-based power plant. Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group on Friday unveiled a grand spending plan of over Rs 60,000 crore (Rs 600 billion) in Orissa, which included an investment blueprint for the world’s largest pithead thermal power plant. … The 12,000 MW coal-fired plant is expected to be set up at Hirma in Jharsuguda district in phases. … India’s energy solutions require a multi-track approach, tapping hydro, thermal, atomic, wind and solar resources to meet the power demand.
“COAL RUSH” – In America’s “new coal rush,” utilities’ dramatic push to build new plants would boost energy security but hurt the environment (emphasis mine). Mark Clayton, America’s New Coal Rush, The Christian Science Monitor, February 26, 2004.
“COAL RUSH” – 100 PLANTS – http://risingtidenorthamerica.org/wordpress/2007/02/15/where-are-the-150-planned-new-us-coal-plants/ Rising Tide, North America
COMBOCEAN™ (CombOcean Energy) – “Invented” by Dr. Frank Trujillo, this neologism merges “combination” and “ocean” to derive CombOcean™. Yes, as in, “What’s all the commotion?” Ha! CombOcean™ refers to the combining, on one site, in one facility (a “megaplant”) of a variety of ocean-based electrical generation technologies. This can include, in addition, one or more non-energy entities.
o Example A: CombOcean Mega-Plant 1 [Florida off-shore]
§ Combines tidal energy with ocean solar; incorporates also a 5,000 unit prison facility and a 250 staff member, off-shore, NOAA ocean research facility
o Example B: CombOcean Mega-Plant 2 [California off-shore]
§ This megaplant combines wind energy (wind energy farm) with tidal energy. It addition, it is a desalinization plant. The world’s longest tidal fence is utilized to transport desalinated water to shore.
COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – (Intergovernmental Preparatory Meeting)
Opening the dialogue, a representative speaking on behalf of a block of developing counties reiterated that access to energy was a primary condition for economic development and poverty reduction, and he called for adequate, predictable and new financial resources, technology transfer and political will. He was one of several speakers who called for new forms of public-private partnership -– between energy companies, financial institutions, non-governmental organizations, knowledge institutes and Government bodies –- and for innovative financing methods, such as microcredits. To that end, there were several calls to give particular attention to the unique challenges faced by the least developed countries, landlocked developing counties and small island developing States. http://www.g77.org/Speeches/030205.htm
DEEP LAKE WATER COOLING – Although not technically an energy generation method, can save a lot of energy during periods of summer heat. It uses submerged pipes as a heat sink for climate control systems. Lake-bottom water has a year-round constant temperature of about 39 degrees, Farenheit.
DISASTER RISK (REDUCTION OF) – In “Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development,” a landmark study released in 2004 by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), “Millions of lives could be saved in coming decades if developing countries did more to anticipate and reduce the risk from natural disasters.” Roles and responsibilities of developed world are discussed. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/disred/documents/press/020204_prrdr_eng.pdf
DRILLSHIP - A maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. It is most often used for exploratory drilling of new oil or gas wells in deep water but can also be used for scientific drilling. It is often built on a modified tanker hull and outfitted with a dynamic positioning system to maintain its position over the well. Drillships are able to drill in water depths of over 2000 meters.
ELECTRICAL GENERATION BY FUEL TYPE – http://www.eia.doe.gov/fuelelectric.html
ELECTRICITY, HOW IT’S GENERATED – http://www.pge.com/microsite/PGE_dgz/more/electricity_gen.html
ENERGY FARM, THE – “The Energy Farm is a tax exempt nonprofit organization promoting renewable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly energy technologies in the United States of America…Don’t let the name fool you. The Energy Farm is a hi-tech facility. We believe Americans can make the switch to renewable energy sources without drastically compromising our quality of life or reverting to pre-industrial living conditions. … With respectful apologies to the Amish, a return to pre-industrial society is not a viable option for the United States. If a sustainable energy future is to be viable, it must not drastically alter the American standard of living or hinder our steady integration of advancing technology.” http://www.energyfarm.org/energyfarm.html
EXTREME WEATHER – [Wikipedia] Provides summary, by year, of major weather-related problems throughout the world. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extreme_weather
FEDERAL ROLE AND ACTIVITIES IN ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 1946-1980: AN HISTORICAL SUMMARY – The federal role in energy research and development has changed substantially in the three decades since World War II. In nuclear technology, the federal presence shifted from government monopoly in the 1940s and early 1950s, to a lesser federal role in the mid-1950s, as the private sector commercialized nuclear power, to an increasing federal role in the 1960s, but now focused on the breeder reactor as a long-term option. Conventional fuel technologies such as coal and oil enjoyed only modest federal support in the immediate postwar years, with only slow increases before 1974. Renewable energy technologies have received substantial federal support only since 1973. http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=6517615
FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANT – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_Fired_Power_Plant
FROM SEA TO SHINING SEA: PRIORITIES FOR OCEAN POLICY REFORM – Report to the United States Senate, June, 2006. (52 pages) http://www.jointoceancommission.org/images/From-Sea-to-Shining-Sea-Report-to-Congress-June-2006.pdf
FUEL CELL – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cell
GENERATING ELECTRICITY FROM OCEAN WAVES – http://www.scjai.com/technote149.html
GIVE US A WAVE! – David Ross article. http://www.ourplanet.com/imgversn/123/ross.html
GOVERNMENT SERVICES ADMINISTRATION (GSA) – Eleven Regional Offices extend GSA’s outreach to federal customers nationwide. GSA acts as a catalyst for nearly $66 billion in federal spending—more than one-fourth of the government’s total procurement dollars. The agency also influences the management of federal assets valued at nearly $500 billion. These assets include more than 8,300 government-owned or leased buildings, an interagency fleet of 170,000 vehicles, and technology programs and products ranging from laptop computers to systems that cost over $100 million.
HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY – This term is, in general, reserved for electricity generated via hydroelectric dam.
HYDROELECTRICITY – [Wikipedia] -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectric_plant
HYDROGEN CAR –[Wikipedia] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_car
HYDROGEN CARS –The automakers brought their hydrogen-powered cars to Washington and President Bush marveled. http://uplink.space.com/showflat.php?Cat=&Board=environment&Number=228013&page=0&view=collapsed&sb=9&o=0&fpart=
HYDROGEN, THE TRUTH ABOUT – “The Truth About Hydrogen,” by John R. Wilson. See this article for his “debunking” of 20 hydrogen myths. http://www.mnforsustain.org/energy_truth_about_hydrogen_wilson.htm
INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB (PROPOSED BAN)- http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/members/a40/
KATRINA’S REAL NAME (GLOBAL WARMING) – Article, Ross Gelbspan, Katrina’s real name, The Boston Globe, August 30, 2005. “…Unfortunately, very few people in America know the real name of Hurricane Katrina because the coal and oil industries have spent millions of dollars to keep the public in doubt about the issue. The reason is simple: To allow the climate to stabilize requires humanity to cut its use of coal and oil by 70 percent. That, of course, threatens the survival of one of the largest commercial enterprises in history. In 1995, public utility hearings in Minnesota found that the coal industry had paid more than $1 million to four scientists who were public dissenters on global warming. And ExxonMobil has spent more than $13 million since 1998 on an anti-global warming public relations and lobbying campaign. In 2000, big oil and big coal scored their biggest electoral victory yet when President George W. Bush was elected president—and subsequently took suggestions from the industry for his climate and energy policies. As the pace of climate change accelerates, many researchers fear we have already entered a period of irreversible runaway climate change. Against this background, the ignorance of the American public about global warming stands out as an indictment of the US media. When the US press has bothered to cover the subject of global warming, it has focused almost exclusively on its political and diplomatic aspects and not on what the warming is doing to our agriculture, water supplies, plant and animal life, public health, and weather. For years, the fossil fuel industry has lobbied the media to accord the same weight to a handful of global warming skeptics that it accords the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—more than 2,000 scientists from 100 countries reporting to the United Nations. Today, with the science having become even more robust—and the impacts as visible as the megastorm that covered much of the Gulf of Mexico—the press bears a share of the guilt for our self-induced destruction with the oil and coal industries. …” -http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2005/08/30/katrinas_real_name/
MARINE BIOMASS ENERGY –(Marine Farm or Ocean Food and Energy Farm, OFEF). Marine farming can capture incredible amounts of solar energy. It has been estimated that large, open ocean farms planted with giant kelp (as one example) could potentially provide most if not all of the energy needs of the United States. As contrasted with combustion of fossil fuels, marine biomass energy removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and converts it, via photosynthesis, into chemical energy. For further information: http://www.gcse.com/energy/biomass.htm
MARINE CURRENT ENERGY (Tidal Energy) – Derives power out of ocean currents. Marine current turbines “capture” ocean energy in a manner somewhat like wind turbines “capture” wind energy. As I have stated in An Open Letter to the President and Congress: Ocean Energy is Vital in Our Battle Against Global Warming, “Marine Current Energy (Tidal Energy). Seawater is 800 times denser than air; hence water traveling at 12 mph exerts force comparable to a 110-mile wind. This power can successfully be harnessed, via turbine. Ocean current is of two types, two-way (ocean tides) and one-way (i.e., the Gulf Stream, for example) and can be used to generate electricity. Experts contend the Gulf Stream alone transports some 1.5 petawatts of heat, equivalent to 100 times the world energy demand. A tidal fence (between two land masses) can serve as a conduit for autos and trains (picture a high-speed bullet train linking Miami, Houston, and San Diego, for example). With regard to future water scarcity issues (rivers like the Colorado drying up, drought, etc.), a tidal fence could also be used for transporting desalinated water to shore.” (p. 3)
MARINE ENERGY, TIDAL POWER – http://www.hie.co.uk/argyll/tidal_power.html
MINI-COOPER, IT’S ELECTRIC! – http://alteng.blogspot.com/
NATIONAL LABORATORIES, U.S. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Energy_National_Laboratories
NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) – U.S. agency focused on the condition of the oceans and the atmosphere. It plays several distinct roles within the Department of Commerce:
· A Supplier of Environmental Information Products
· A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is the steward of national coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, state, local, tribal and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species.
· A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is a trusted source of accurate and objective scientific information in four particular areas of national and global importance:
o Ecosystems: Ensure the sustainable use of resources and balance competing uses of coastal and marine ecosystems, recognizing both their human and natural components.
o Climate: Understand changes in climate, including the El Niño phenomenon, to ensure that we can plan and respond properly.
o Weather & Water: Provide data and forecasts for weather and water cycle events, including storms, droughts and floods.
o Commerce & Transportation: Provide weather, climate, and ecosystem information to make sure individual and commercial transportation is safe, efficient and environmentally sound.
NATIONAL OCEANS WEEK – Celebrated on June 4 –June 10, 2007
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) – An independent US government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. With an annual budget of $6 billion (approx.), NSF funds about 20% of all federally supported basic research undertaken by US colleges and universities. In some fields, mathematics, computer science, economics, and the social sciences, for example, NSF is the major source of federal support.
The NSF organizes its research and education support through seven directorates, each encompassing several disciplines:
o Biological Sciences (molecular, cellular, and organismal biology, and environmental science.
o Computer and Information Science and Engineering (computer science, computer and networking systems, and artificial intelligence.
o Engineering (bioengineering, environmental systems, civil and mechanical systems, chemical and transport systems, electrical and communications systems, and design and manufacturing)
o Geosciences (geological, atmospheric, and ocean sciences)
o Mathematical and Physical Sciences (mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, and materials science)
o Social, Behaviorial and Economic Sciences (neuroscience, psychology, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, and economics)
o Education and Human Resources (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, at every level, pre-K to grey)
NEVADA SOLAR 1 – Similar in name to the Mojave desert’s Solar One, America’s newest solar-powered plant, Nevada Solar 1, is somewhat different in that it uses a solar thermal parabolic trough system. When completed, in 2007, this electric plant will generate a very respectable 64 megawatts.
NEWTOK, ALASKA – Running out of fuel in Newtok would be disastrous, say leaders of the Yupik Eskimo community of 315. Without fuel, villagers cannot power the snowmobiles and boats they need to search for such foods as seal and halibut, which are crucial to their survival. … Flooding and erosion affects 184 out of 213 Alaska native villages to some extent, according to a 2003 report by the U.S. Government Accounting Office. Various studies indicate that rising temperatures are partly to blame, the report said. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070222/ap_on_re_us/village_erosion
NUCLEAR POWER PLANT – http://www.nei.org/index.asp?catnum=2&catid=342
NUCLEAR POWER – PROBLEMS OF GOING NULCEAR – This week a panel of scientists handed the UN its ideas on ways to wean the world from using coal, oil, and gas. Two ideas led the list: more renewable energy – and more nuclear energy. Other recent studies have reached similar conclusions.
Many environmentalists see wider use of nuclear energy as a non-starter, citing proliferation, terrorism, waste disposal, large and long-term costs and, most of all, lingering doubts about safety. None of these concerns is trivial. Yet a number of leading environmentalists have jumped ship to back nuclear, saying it’s essential to saving the planet from global warming despite potential problems. Something besides wind power, geothermal, solar energy, and conservation is needed to curb carbon use. At least 30 new nuclear plants are already rising in 13 countries, with nearly half of the new generating capacity in China, India, and Russia. In the US, 15 utilities are planning to build from 26 to 29 new reactors over the next decade or so. Some of these plans are simply “placeholders” for decisions not yet taken. Other plans are more concrete. They all draw on new types of reactors that their makers insist are less complicated, more reliable, and safer than reactors running today. Even if that’s true, the success of such plants still depends on the quality of oversight. United Nations 2/27/07http://news.yahoo.com/s/csm/20070302/cm_csm/enuclear&printer=1;_ylt=Aq3kvbAw3xtqRysW5jS9uLe7e8UF Scientists & United Nations 3/1/07
NUCLEAR POWER VS. OCEAN POWER – As I have stated in An Open Letter to the President and Congress: Ocean Energy is Vital in Our Battle Against Global Warming, “Unlike nuclear power, ocean-based technologies pose no risk of nuclear accident, nuclear radiation, and nuclear waste. Fossil-fuel power (coal, oil, and gas) contributes to acid rain, global warming, and air pollution. Not so with ocean energy.” [See Footnote 1, p. 3.]
OCEAN BASED WIND ENERGY – http://www.americanenergyindependence.com/windenergy.html
OCEAN SOLAR ENERGY – http://www.seasolarpower.com/otec.html
OCEAN SOLAR ENERGY – The ocean is, inarguably, the world’s largest solar collector. Nowhere on earth is it more “flat.” There are no mountains, valleys, canyons, etc….on the surface of the ocean. Likewise, it is entirely possible that thermal energy can be used for electrical generation. Significant question: Why not merge 3-4 different ocean-based technologies all on the same site? wave energy, tidal energy, thermal energy conversion systems, offshore wind power plants, etc. -http://www.ocean.com/resource.asp?locationid=1&resourceid=3718&ProdId=&CatId=1&TabID=&SubTabID=
OIL PLATFORM – [Wikipedia] An oil platform is a large structure used to house workers and machinery needed to drill and then produce oil and natural gas in the ocean. Depending on the circumstances, the platform may be attached to the ocean floor, consist of an artificial island, or be floating. Generally, oil platforms are located on the continental shelf, though as technology improves, drilling and production in deeper waters becomes both feasible and profitable. A typical platform may have around thirty wellheads located on the platform and directional drilling allows reservoirs to be accessed at both different depths and at remote positions up to 5 miles (8 kilometres) from the platform. Many platforms also have remote wellheads attached by umbilical connections, these may be single wells or a manifold centre for multiple wells. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_platform
Points of Interest: 1. Much of the technological “know-how” for off-shore platforms already exists 2. Countless individuals, to one degree or another, already possess off-shore expertise and experience. Trujillo recommendation: Those interested in ocean-based electrical generation are well-advised to tap into these resources.
OREGON WANTS TO LEAD – Oregon wants to be a leader in wave power. http://wave.oregonstate.edu/news/story/1319
OCEAN PROTECTION – Three Pacific Coast Governors Announce Historic Partnership for Ocean Action West Coast Governors’ Agreement on Ocean Health; California, Oregon and Washington Will Work Together to Safeguard Critical Marine Resources. September 19, 2006. -http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-16400.html
OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) – Uses the temperature difference between the warmer surface of the ocean and the colder lower recesses. To this end, it employs a cyclic heat engine.
OCEAN WAVES ENERGY TAPPED FOR CLEAN ELECTRICITY – http://www.primidi.com/2005/02/05.html
OFF-SHORE WIND ENERGY (Wind Farm) As I have stated in An Open Letter to the President and Congress: Ocean Energy is Vital in Our Battle Against Global Warming, “Most Americans are familiar with the land-based wind energy turbine. Fewer are acquainted with its off-shore cousin. The ocean makes up 73% of the earth’s surface, hence off-shore wind energy potential is enormous—several times again the energy requirement of the entire world. A wind farm is unobtrusive, assuming placement of turbines 10 or 100 miles from shore. One wind farm complex alone—comprised of 250 or 300 wind turbines—can produce as much electricity as is produced annually in a nuclear power plant. Off-shore wind energy is clean and renewable. If implemented on a large scale, it alone could fulfill 100% of the energy requirement of the United States.” [p. 3-4]
OIL PLATFORMS USED FOR FISH FARMS -http://www.redorbit.com/news/display/?id=140686&source=r_science
PELAMIS WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER – http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/news/story?id=10639
RENEWABLE ENERGY – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy
RENEWABLE ENERGY DESIGN CONTEST – Water and renewable energy light up students’ minds at New Mexico State University with a newly created design contest. -http://www.roundupnews.com/home/index.cfm?event=articleSentToFriend&ustory_id=e3fcde2d%2D6f11%2D4e65%2Db6e0%2De776707f6b1b
RUN-OF-THE-RIVER HYDROELECTRICITY -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Run-of-the-river_hydroelectricity
SEVERE AND HISTORIC STORMS – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_windstorm
SOLAR 1 – [Wikipedia] A pilot solar-thermal project in the Mojave Desert near Barstow, California. Solar One was the first test of a large scale thermal solar power tower, power plant. Solar One was designed by the Department of Energy (DOE) , Southern California Edison, LA Dept of Water and Power, and California Energy Commission. It was located in Daggett, California, which is about 10 miles east of Barstow. Solar One’s method of collecting power was based on concentrating the sun’s energy to produce heat and run a generator. A pilot project, Solar One produced 10 megawatts of electricity. -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_One
SOLAR 2 – [Wikipedia] Solar 2 in the Mojave Desert is the world’s largest solar power facility. It is capable of producing 10 megawatts of electricity. -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_One
SOLAR – The world’s largest solar power plant is under construction in Australia. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/10/25/asia/AS_GEN_Australia_Climate_Change.php
SOLAR FARM – Some limited research is being done with regard to placement of solar farms over the ocean. Considering that the ocean makes up in excess of 70 percent of the earth’s surface, some believe this to be the most logical extension of solar energy applications in the near future.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development
TECHNOLOGY CENTERS, U.S. – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Energy_National_Laboratories
TESLA ROADSTER – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_Roadster
TIDAL FENCE (DESIGN BY BLUE ENERGY) – http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Blue_Energy
TIDAL STREAM POWER – Energy is captured from the flow of tides, usually using underwater plant resembling a small wind turbine. Tidal stream power demonstration projects currently exist, but large- scale development will require additional capital.
TIDAL POWER – Power achieved by capturing energy contained in moving water mass due to tides.
TIDAL POWER – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_power
TXU CORPORATION (GOAL: TO BUILD 11 NEW COAL POWER PLANTS) – Matthew L. Wald, Committed to Coal, and in a Hurry, Too, The New York Times, November 7, 2006. Billed as the nation’s largest coal-oriented construction project, TXU’s goal is to build 11 new coal power plants. According to Wald, “Even as some utility executives are joining environmentalists in seeing future controls on carbon emissions as inevitable, TXU is betting that it can beat the consensus, placing a $10 billion wager on 11 new coal power plants that will produce copious amounts of global warming gases for decades to come.” One coal-burning power plant alone can release millions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, the main contributor to global warming. -http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/07/business/07coal.html?ex=1320555600&en=ff1ab5a624cb58d8&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
URBAN INTERFACE – The boundary between a safely inhabitable region and an area known to be vulnerable to nature’s wrath.
U.S. EMBASSIES AND CONSULATES WORLDWIDE – http://usembassy.state.gov/
U.S. OCEAN ACTION PLAN: THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION’S RESPONSE TO THE U.S. COMMISSION ON OCEAN POLICY. On September 20, 2004, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy completed a thorough and expansive report, “An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century.” On December 17, 2004, the President submitted to Congress his formal response, the U.S. Ocean Action Plan.
WATER (USE OF WATER IN THERMOELECTRIC PLANT) At present, about 57 percent of the Nation’s total power is produced by burning coal. Producing electrical power is one of the largest uses of water in the United States. In 2000, 195,000 million gallons of water each day were used to produce electricity (excluding hydroelectric power).One of the main uses of water in the power industry is to cool the power-producing equipment. Water used for this purpose does cool the equipment, but at the same time, the hot equipment heats up the cooling water! Overly hot water cannot be released back into the environment — fish downstream from a power plant releasing the hot water could be harmed. So, the used water must first be cooled…. Coal-fired plants utilize very large cooling towers. Water is cooled, via evaporation, as it is sprayed into the air inside these towers. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/powerplant.html
WAVE ACTION…HOW AND WHY WAVES BEHAVE AS THEY DO – Fascinating article on ocean wave action. http://www.antrimdesign.com/articles/waves.html
WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER – [Wikipedia] Pelamis wave energy converter; “wavefarm” off the coast of Portugal
WAVE ENERGY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM – Excellent resource; entries on a variety of wave energy plans, some already operational; most with respect to UK. http://www.greenenergyworks.org.uk/wave.htm
WAVE ENERGY, STATE OF THE ART DEVELOPMENTS – Excellent source for state-of-the-art developments in wave energy. Several technologies and types of devices are highlighted. http://www.peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Ocean_Wave_Energy
WAVE PONTOON SYSTEM – System wherein energy of ocean waves is used to create electricity. The waves force large pontoons move up and down in the water, leaving an area with reduced wave height in the “shadow”.
WAVE POWER - Energy derived from the power of the ocean waves. Systems include, oscillating water column, articulated pontoon, wave pump, anchored buoy, fixed buoy, and overtopping reservoir, among others. Wave power demonstration projects exist, as do fully-operational systems, but large scale development will require additional capital.
WAVE POWER/WAVE ENERGY (Ocean Surface Wave Energy). As I have stated in An Open Letter to the President and Congress: Ocean Energy is Vital in Our Battle Against Global Warming, “ Using a variety of innovative technologies, electricity is today being generated, via wave energy, in dozens of locations throughout the world. Wave energy is pollution-free and entirely, persistently, renewable. It has been estimated that ocean waves are capable of producing between 2,000 and 4,000 gigawatts of electricity, the latter according to UNESCO. And, if that isn’t enough, every 15 seconds, or so, here comes another wave! (I like to look at wave energy in this way: In 2007, seven years into the 21st century, only one wave in every one-hundred-million-billion-gazillion, has ever been harnessed for purposes of electrical production! As anyone can plainly see, we’ve got quite a waves to go! Ha!)” [p. 3]
WAVE POWER As I have suggested in An Open Letter to the President and Congress, Ocean Energy is Vital in Our Battle Against Global Warming, “David Ross, now deceased, one of the preeminent authorities in the field, stated that, ‘Wave energy has been hailed as the most promising renewable source for maritime countries. It does no environmental damage and is inexhaustible—the waves go on forever. It is invariably popular with the public, which has a sentimental love of the sea… The potential resource is vast. It is usually estimated as being of the order of 2,000 gigawatts (GW) though UNESCO has put it at roughly double that amount. But what we need to estimate is how much can be gathered and delivered at an economic price.” [See Footnote 3, p. 3]
WAVE POWER – [Wikipedia] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_power
WIND FARM – (Off –Shore Wind Energy). As I have stated in An Open Letter to the President and Congress: Ocean Energy is Vital in Our Battle Against Global Warming, “Most Americans are familiar with the land-based wind energy turbine. Fewer are acquainted with its off-shore cousin. The ocean makes up 73% of the earth’s surface, hence off-shore wind energy potential is enormous—several times again the energy requirement of the entire world. A wind farm is unobtrusive, assuming placement of turbines 10 or 100 miles from shore. One wind farm complex alone—comprised of 250 or 300 wind turbines—can produce as much electricity as is produced annually in a nuclear power plant. Off-shore wind energy is clean and renewable. If implemented on a large scale, it alone could fulfill 100% of the energy requirement of the United States.” P. 3-4
WORKING GROUP ON PUBLIC HEALTH AND FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION – Study which predicts that hundreds of thousands of lives could be saved annually, an estimated 8 million by the year 2020, if climate control policies were adopted worldwide. – http://www.ecoiq.com/magazine/features/feature3.html